Pancha Mahapurusha Yoga
In a horoscope, Pancha Mahapurusha Yoga is formed when one of the five planets - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are powerful, i.e. near their point of exaltation, and are in a kendra from Moon or Lagna. The planets in this combination exert a powerful influence on a horoscope. The influence is in form of general disposition of the person and since there is a kendra involved, it affects personal relationships and profession as well. These yogas are known to give a lot of wealth, name and fame to the person.
Budhaditya or Budhaaditya yog is formed when Sun and Mercury join together (i.e. are conjunct) in a house. This yog, in a person’s chart, is said to give lots of talent, success, honour among his/her peers and fame in society.
Mercury is the first planet in the Solar System and is very close to the Sun. As a result, it cannot be more than one sign away from the Sun in the rashi chart. This yog, therefore, appears in a lot of charts, but not all the charts can have the qualities mentioned in the first paragraph.
Any yog materializes only when all the planets involved in the yog are strong. They should be placed well in a chart and also should not themselves be badhakas for the chart, e.g. by being lord of dusthanas. Budhaditya yog is best formed when Sun and Mercury are in signs of Aries, Gemini, Leo and Virgo. The logic is simple - Aries is exaltation sign for Sun, Gemini and Leo are ruled by Mercury and Sun respectively and Virgo is exaltation/moolatrikona sign for Mercury. It is natural to think that these signs would be more conducive for this yog. In other signs, this yog would not fair that well and would give mixed results.
Ownership of Leo by Sun and Gemini and Virgo by Mercury make it a fairly tricky yog. Looking at all the lagnas, it is difficult to find a case both Mercury and Sun are rulers of good houses. Consider the case of Aries lagna where Mercury is a difficult planet as it rules house number three and six at the same time. Sun is an owner of a good house - house number five, but its association with Mercury may not be considered good for the person.
This yog would give good results for Taurus, Leo, Libra and Aquarius lagna. For Sagittarius lagna, Sun and Mercury should be considered auspicious raj-yog karak. Based on Parashari principles, many astrologers might disagree with this observation. They could attribute Mercury to be afflicted because of ownership of two kendra houses at the same time. I am of the opinion that in this case Budhaditya yog still exists.
Apart from house ownership considerations, Mercury should not be extremely close to the Sun. It may be considered combust if it is within six degrees. During the recent transit of Mercury across the solar disc (November 8-9, 2006), Budhaditya yog would get canceled.
Ruchaka yoga: Mars is a planet of bravery, energy and initiative on the positive side and conflict on the negative side. Presence of Ruchaka Yoga in a horoscope makes a person brave and gives him/her passion and intensity. On the negative side, this yoga can also make a person arrogant. Since Mars has a fourth full drishti, presence of this yoga in any of the four kendras has a strong influence on the profession. Many police officers have Ruchaka Yoga in their charts. A negative influence in the horoscope would also show up. I had read this in the Astrology Magazine a while back that there is a fine line between law-makers and law-breakers and Ruchaka Yoga would certainly be found in charts of some famous criminals.
Bhadra yoga: This yoga is related to Mercury, which is a planet that rules intellect, speech and business practices. While exerting its influence in the horoscope through Bhadra Yoga, Mercury tends to make a person highly intelligent, a good orator/writer and someone who can communicate his/her ideas to the world with utmost ease. As Mercury also governs businesses in general, the corresponding influence would also help the person in fields of management - sales, marketing and finance. The moment I say finance, you can draw a conclusion that the person would automatically be rich. Usually there are very little negative effects of Bhadra Yoga. Any influences by Saturn or Rahu/Ketu on Mercury would simply not let this yoga show up.
Hamsa yoga: Jupiter is the supreme teacher, that is why it is called in Sanskrit as, simply, Guru. It is a planet of spirituality. Guru also represents blessings by God, and its drishti on lagna, Sun or Moon in a chart is considered very fortunate. You can now easily guess… if Guru is the strongest planet in the chart and if it influences Kendras, the person would be lucky and due to divine intervention, he would never get in trouble. The person would also be quite religious and not religious for just his/her own inner self, he would share his knowledge with the rest of the world as well, as Jupiter would like him to do. Naturally, this yoga would be strong in the charts of spiritual leaders. Since Guru also represents husband in chart of women, Hamsa Yoga in the chart of a woman would mean a lot of good for her husband.
Malavaya yoga: This yoga is related to Venus - a planet that governs beauty, luxury and comfort in life. It represents wife in a man's chart. A strong Venus, through Malavaya?yoga bestows a very loving and supporting wife to such a man. In the chart of a woman, it makes her beautiful and desirable. Venus, through ownership of signs 2 (Taurus) and 7 (Libra), is also intricately linked to house number two and seven and their "fields of activity". Malavaya yoga could also make a person a good businessman with ability to extend his empire through partnerships (7) and give him a lot of money (2).
Shasha yoga: Saturn is a mystical planet. This planet represents poverty, disease and adversity. You would wonder, how is a strong Saturn beneficial then… A strong Saturn, which represents pessimism, in a chart, can make the person a profound and deep thinker. In an organization, there are a lot of people who, under the influence of Mercury would come up with new ideas. The people, with a strong Saturn or best, Sasha yoga in their charts, would be the ones who finally implement these ideas and bring them to reality. These are the people with real sense and position of authority. These people are not optimists, but they would still be smiling in adversity because they have already thought ahead and taken the worst case scenario into account. Like in the case of Ruchaka Yoga, a lot of negative influences can creep in. Saturn is a cruel planet by disposition. If it is not under beneficial influence of Jupiter and is a cruel planet in the chart by position as well, Shasha yoga can make a person very cold and calculating.
OK, now is the time for some clarifications… Statistically, these yogas can appear in a lot of charts, but the effects would not show up everywhere. As I have mentioned in the post about Gaja Kesari Yoga, the chart by itself should be strong for any yoga to show up and materialize. In case of Panch Mahapurusha Yoga, the planet should also be close to its point of exaltation and not merely present in the sign of exaltation. It should also not be powerless due to shadbala, e.g. by being at rashi sandhi. The planet must be strong in Navamsha as well.
Also, existence of this yoga in a chart does not mean that the person would be a Mahapurusha in literal sense. Depending on other influences in the chart, as always, fame could also mean notoriety.